1996 article deals with human evolution, not genius potential

CLAIM

“Black Africans have more DNA sets than any other group on earth”; The more DNA sets you have, the greater your genius potential ”; “they protected this study, to hide this truth”

DETAILS

Inaccurate: The referenced 1996 article “Global Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 Locus and Modern Human Origins” does not address “genius potential” and the term “DNA series” is not used in the article. The article examines human evolution and the evidence in the human genome that supports the “out of Africa” ​​model of human evolution.
Misleading: It is common practice to protect academic documents by copyright. The majority of scientific articles are protected by copyright, with the journal that published the article retaining the copyright. The paper was not copyrighted to “hide the truth”.

KEY TO TAKE AWAY

The 1996 article “Global Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 Locus and Modern Human Origins” examines the evidence in the human genome for how human evolution has occurred. The article never discusses “genius potential” as it is claimed. It is common practice to protect academic articles by copyright, with the journal that published the article retaining the copyright in most cases. The paper was not copyrighted to “hide the truth”.

FULL CLAIM: “In 1996, 9 geneticists discovered that black Africans had more sets of DNA than any other group on earth. They have 9 sets of DNA whereas Europeans only have 6. The more sets of DNA you have, the greater your genius potential. For this reason, they protected this study by copyright, to hide this truth ”.

REVIEW

On September 10, 2021, Facebook users shared posts (see here and here) claiming that “in 1996, 9 geneticists discovered that black Africans had more sets of DNA than any other group on earth. “. The articles also claimed that “the more DNA sets you have, the greater your genius potential”, and that the 1996 study in which these results were published was copyrighted to hide this truth. . The posts are based on a YouTube video from July 29, 2021, where an individual discusses the DNA series, genius potential, and shows an impression of the 1996 article.

However, the 1996 article – “Global Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 Locus and Modern Human Origins” – does not address the potential of genius. Rather, the article examines the evidence in the human genome for the model of human evolution “outside Africa” ​​where all non-African human populations are descended from the same. Homo sapiens ancestor who evolved in Africa[1]. As we will show below, the claims made in the Facebook post are not supported by the 1996 article referenced.

A Brief Summary of “Global Models of CD4 Binding Imbalance and Modern Human Origins”

In the same way that we can dig up fossils and use them to help us draw the evolutionary tree of modern humans, geneticists can extract information from the DNA of modern humans to understand how we evolved and then spread to worldwide. Evidence from both fossils and our own genes indicates that our species, the Homo sapiens, probably originating in Africa before spreading on Earth; this is called the “outside Africa” model. Other models of the origin of our species have been proposed, such as the “multiregional” model (which has its supporters) where H. sapiens native to many geographic locations on several occasions.

In their 1996 paper, geneticists Sarah Tishkoff and colleagues searched for evidence of the out-of-Africa pattern in the DNA of more than 1,600 modern humans in 42 geographic locations.[1]. They focused on the geographic distribution of two related regions — STRP and Alu — on human chromosome 12. These two regions are considered “linked” because they are close to each other on chromosome 12 and are often inherited together.

Both STRP and Alu have slight variations in their genetic sequences due to mutations; we call these alternate forms alleles. STRP is made up of repeated sequences of nucleotides (TTTTC), which are the building blocks of DNA; the number of repeats varies among people, who can have from four to 15 repeats of this nucleotide sequence. This means that there are 12 possible alleles or versions of this genetic region.

The second region of DNA, Alu, has two possible alleles: one where a stretch of DNA is deleted called Alu (-), and the other where that stretch of DNA is intact called Alu (+).

Each of the 12 possible STRP alleles is linked to one of the two possible Alu alleles. Because of this link, humans can have up to 24 possible combinations of STRP and Alu alleles. What Tishkoff and his collaborators did was examine the genomes of more than 1,600 individuals from these 42 geographically dispersed populations, and see which combinations of STRP and Alu alleles were most prevalent in these different populations.

The study found that, of these 24 possible combinations, 21 were found in the DNA of individuals from regions of Africa. In individuals from regions outside of Africa, fewer combinations of STRP and Alu alleles were found. This means that there is greater variation of STRP-Alu combinations in African populations compared to the rest of the world. The smaller diversity of STRP-Alu combinations in non-African populations compared to African populations is evidence that humans in Asia, Europe and the Americas are descended from a small group – and therefore with less diversity of STRP combination. -Alu – who left Africa around 100,000 years ago.

For Tischkoff and colleagues, the global distribution of these combinations “suggests a common and recent African origin for all non-African human populations” and supports the pattern of human evolution outside Africa.[1].

The 1996 article does not speak of “genius potential”

“Global Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 Locus and Modern Human Origins” never addresses “genius potential” as the Facebook posts and YouTube video suggest. They also claim that “the more sets of DNA you have, the greater your genius potential,” but the article compares the diversity of combinations of two linked regions on chromosome 12, not the amount of DNA. In addition, the term “DNA series” never appears in the document, and “DNA series” is not a term used in human evolution and genetics.

Finally, Facebook and YouTube posts claim that the 1996 study was copyrighted to “hide the truth”. This is misleading because copyright is a common practice in academic publishing; the majority of scientific articles are protected by copyright, with the scientific journal that published the article retaining copyright in most cases. In this case, the copyright owner is most likely the journal. Science, who published the document in 1996. Currently, the document is not open access at Science, however PDF copies of “Global Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 Locus and Modern Human Origins” are available online (see here and here). In short, this study was not copyrighted to “hide the truth”, but because copyright is part of the course of mainstream scientific publishing.

Conclusion

Tishkoff et al’s 1996 article “Global Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 Locus and Modern Human Origins” examines the evidence in the human genome for the “out of Africa” ​​pattern of human evolution. The diary never discusses the “genius potential” or the “DNA series” as recent Facebook posts claim.

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